August 2007 Poll - Discussion

Welcome to the discussion of results from the Type & Politics Poll. The discussion presented here provides a more in-depth look at the results from the poll.

This section presents the following:

  • Responses to the Type & Politics Poll are compared with the national averages calculated by
  • Summary results from statistical analyses of poll responses are presented and discussed.

If you would like to view the "raw results" from the poll, simply click on the "Poll Results" link to the left.

Click on "Next" (below) to start viewing the discussion.


The first round of the Type & Politics Poll was conducted during the first full week of November 2007. Approximately 3000 e-mails were sent to members of the Association for Psychological Type – International soliciting participation in the poll. The poll also was open to any visitor to the website during this time. APTi members were provided with a password for identification purposes.


Four hundred people completed the poll. The majority of these respondents indicated preferences for I (57%), N (85%), F (58%), and J (54%). Not surprisingly, 52% reported a preference for NF. The average age of respondents was 52 years and the majority (72%) were female (n = 369).

Eighty-nine percent of the responses came from U.S. citizens. The political affiliations of the 345 who indicated this information was: 55% Democrat, 28% Independent, and 12% Republican.

Two hundred and eighty two people provided the correct password and 91 individuals indicated “notapt” as requested by the question. Another 80 individuals did not enter a password or entered an incorrect password.

Approval Ratings for U.S.

As show in the following three graphs, poll respondents gave significantly lower approval ratings to President Bush and Congress than were given by national samples. The poll respondents also were less likely to indicate the country was headed in the right direction.

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 Note: Results shown are for all poll respondents indicating U.S. Citizenship (n = 346).

Preferences for Presidential Candidates:  Poll Responses Compared with National Averages

 Participants in the Type & Politics Poll expressed very similar preferences for presidential candidates when compared with national averages.


Poll participants who indicated they were registered democrats (n = 197) expressed very similar preferences for presidential candidates when compared with national averages.


Poll participants who indicated they were registered republicans (n = 64) expressed very similar preferences for presidential candidates when compared with national averages. Preferences for Romney, however, seem somewhat lower than the national average.

 Note: Of the 84 participants who indicated they were registered as "Other," or were not registered but planned to register, the following candidates were preferred: Obama (26%), Clinton (14%), Edwards (10%), and Don't Know (23%). No other candidates received more than 9% preference.

Type and Liberal-Conservative Orientation

As discussed elsewhere on this site , some research suggests a relationship between S-N preferences and self-identified liberal-conservative political orientation. That is, to the extent that conservative orientations involve preferences for sustaining traditional institutions and a cautious approach to change, then a conservative orientation appears to reflect S preferences. To the extent that liberal orientations involve a preference for change and new possibilities, then a liberal orientation appears to reflect N preferences.

We tested statistically for this possible relationship using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with self-reported liberal-conservative orientations as the dependent variable and type preferences as the independent variables. Results for the APT sample (n = 242) supported the notion that S types report they are more conservative whereas N types report they are more liberal. These results were replicated with the larger set of APT and "notapt" responses (n = 331).







 Results also suggested that T types report they are more conservative whereas F types report they are more liberal. This result, however, was evident only with the APT sample.

Finally, no support was found for a "type dynamics" effect (i.e., no interaction effects were significant). The analysis tested for an effect reflecting the mental functions groups (SN by TF interaction) and the interesting SJ vs NP difference with respect to change vs stability (SN by JP interaction).

Type and Party Membership

Sensing and Intuition preferences clearly seem related to a person's political self-concept as liberal, moderate, or conservative.  But, are type preferences related to one's choice of a political party?{mosimage}

Consulting Pscyhologists Press' construction of the Form M collected information about type and political party preference that provides some interesting insights into this question.  In particular, the following hypotheses seem reasonable based on this analysis:

  • Republicans are likely to be TJ types.
  • INFJs cleary seem to identify as Democrats.
  • STJs are least likely to identify as Independents whereas NTPs are most likely to identify as Independents.

One of the objectives of the Type & Politics Poll was to try and replicate these results. Thus, we examined statistically whether or not the following variables would be associated with party identification (Republican, Democratic, Independent): E-I, S-N, T-F, J-P, and political orientation (liberal, moderate, conservative).  We used a technique called Multinomial Logistic Regression using sample of APT only members (with password) as well as the total set of responses (for exploratory purposes and to enhance statistical analysis).

Links for copies of the results are provided for each analysis.  Should you choose to look at the results, please keep in mind that E, S, T, and J are coded 0 (zero) and I, N, F, P are coded 1 (one). And, you'll need to enable Javascript to see the pop-up results.

 Party and Orientation
Prior to assessing the effects of type on party indentification we looked at the relationship of party identification to political orienation.  Using simple crosstabs, results indicated the expected relationship:  more conservative orientations are related to Republican party identification whereas more liberal orientations are related to Democratic party identification.  The results were significant for both the APT Only group as well as the Total set of responses, and thus provide some construct validity for the data.

Type & Party

We first looked at the relationship between party identification (Republican, Democratic, Independent) and the preference dichotomies (EI, SN, TF, JP).  Results were significant for the Total group as well as the APT Only group with the results for the APT Only group being much clearer (more significant).  Results indicated that poll members with preferences for S, T, and J were more likely to identify as Republican than Democrat.  Results also indicated those with preferences for T and J were more more likely to identify with Independent than Democrat.  The results showing T & J associated with Republican moreso than Democrat seem consistent with CPP's findings.   

Given the relationship between political orientation and party identification, we next looked at the relationship between type, political orientation, and party identification. For this analysis we removed the EI preferences given they were not significant in the first assessment. Results from these analyses also produced significant results for both the APT Only group as well as the Total set of responses.  The significant results in this case, however, were produced by political orientation (Liberal, Moderate, Conservative). None of the type preferences played a significant role. Rather, self-identified Conservatives and Moderates were more likely to identify as Republican and Independent than Democrat.  

These results are similar to results found in a sample of Italian voters using the Five-Factor Model measures as well as a measure of values.  That is, the personality variables were found to relate to political party identification, but not as strongly as the measures of personal values.  Thus, it seems possible that type preferences may influence political orientations which then are more closely associated with party identification.   

Type and Bush's Type
Evaluations of George W. Bush's type suggested that sample members more consistently rated Bush as S than N. However, ratings on E-I, T-F, and J-P were more evenly divided.   

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